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Struct module


The @ytt:struct module provides functions for constructing and deconstructing struct values.

To use these functions, include the @ytt:struct module:

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")


Deconstructs a given value into plain/Starlark values, recursively.

  • struct_val (struct) — the value to decompose.
    • struct values are converted into dict values where each attribute in the struct becomes a key on the dict.
    • if the value of an attribute is a struct, it is likewise converted to a dict.
    • all other values are copied, as is.


load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

foo = struct.encode({"a": [1,2,3,{"c":456}], "b": "str"})
bar = struct.decode(foo)

bar["a"]  # <== [1, 2, 3, {"c": 456}]


Makes a struct of a given value, recursively.

  • value (dict | list | scalar) — the value to encode.
    • dict values are converted into structs where each key in the dict becomes an attribute on the struct. Keys of the items in dict values must be strings.
    • if a dict or list contains a value that is a dict, it is likewise converted to a struct.


  • encode() cannot encode functions nor YAML Fragments. If you wish to make a struct that contains attributes that hold these types, consider make().

Example: Data structure from a dictionary

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

d = struct.encode({"a": [1,2,3,{"c":456}], "b": "str"})
d.a        # <== [1, 2, 3, c: (struct...)]
d.a[3].c   # <== 456
bar["b"]   # <== "str"


Instantiates a struct based on the key/value pairs provided.

struct.make(key1=value1, key2=value2, ...)
  • keyN (keyword argument name) — becomes the name of the Nth attribute in the constructed struct.
  • =valueN(any) — becomes the value of the Nth attribute in the constructed struct.


  • make() does not modify values in any way (e.g. if valueN is a dictionary, it is not converted into a struct). To recursively build a hierarchy of structs from dict, list, and scalars, see struct.encode().

Example 1: Scalar values

For visually pleasing collections of fields

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

consts = struct.make(version="0.39.0", service_name="prometheus")

consts.version      # <== "0.39.0"
consts.service_name # <== "prometheus"

Example 2: Data structures

Dictionaries values remain instances of dict.

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

consts = struct.make(service={"version": "0.39.0", "name": "prometheus"})

consts.service["version"]  # <== "0.39.0"
consts.service["name"]     # <== "prometheus"
# const.service.version    # Error! "dict has no .version field or method"

Example 3: Nested structs

Nested invocations of make() to retain dot expression access.

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

consts = struct.make(service=struct.make(version="0.39.0", name="prometheus"))

consts.service.version  # <== "0.39.0"     # <== "prometheus"

See also: struct.encode() to convert all dict values to structs, recursively.

Example 4: Collection of functions

“Export” a set of functions from a library file.

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

def _valid_port(port):

def _url_encode(url):

urls = struct.make(valid_port= _valid_port, encode= _url_encode, ...)
#@ load("", "urls")

#@ if/end urls.valid_port(...):
encoded: #@ urls.encode("encode_url")


Binds one or more function(s) to a struct, making them method(s) on that struct. This allows structs to carry both data and behavior related to that data.

struct.make_and_bind(receiver, method_name1=function1, ...)
  • receiver (struct) — “object” to attach the function(s) to.
  • method_nameN (keyword argument name) — the name that callers will specify to invoke the method.
  • functionN (function) — the function value (either the name of a function or a lambda expression) that will be bound to receiver by the name method_nameN.
    • the first parameter of functionN is receiver, implicitly.
    • the remaining parameters of functionN become the parameters of receiver.method_nameN()


  • Binding is useful for cases where a commonly desired value is a calculation of two or more values on receiver.

Example 1: Binding a function value

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

conn = struct.make(hostname="", default_port=1022, protocol="https")

def _url(self, port=None):
  port = port or self.default_port
  return "{}://{}:{}".format(self.protocol, self.hostname, port)

conn = struct.make_and_bind(conn, url=_url)

conn.url()      # ==>
conn.url(8080)  # ==>

Example 2: Binding a lambda expression

load("@ytt:struct", "struct")

_conn_data = struct.make(hostname="", default_port=1022, protocol="https")

conn = struct.make_and_bind(_conn_data, url=lambda self, port=None: "{}://{}:{}".format(self.protocol, self.hostname, port or self.default_port))

conn.url()      # ==>
conn.url(8080)  # ==>

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